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Database System Environment:

Database system refers to a set of components that define and control the collection, storage, management and use of data. It is composed of five major parts hardware, software, people, procedures and data.

1.       Hardware: Hardware refers to all of the system's physical devices; for example, computers storage devices, printers, network devices and etc.

2.       Software: To make the database system work properly, three types of software are needed: operating system, DBMS software, and application programs.
a)       Operating system: It manages all hardware components and allows other software to run on the computers. Examples of operating system software include Windows, Linux and etc.
b)       DBMS software: It manages the database within the database system. Some examples of DBMS software include Oracle, Access, MySql and etc.
c)       Application programs: These are used to access and manipulate data in the DBMS and to manage the computer environment in which data access and manipulation take place. Application programs are most commonly used to access data to generate reports.  Most of the application programs provide GUI.

3.       People: This component includes all users of the database system. According to the job nature, five types of users can be identified: systems administrators, database administrators, database designers, systems analysts and programmers, and end users.
a)       System administrators: They supervise the database system's general operations.
b)       Database administrators: They are also known as DBAs. They manage the DBMS and ensure that the data­base is functioning properly.  
c)       Database designers: They design the database structure. They are the database architects. As this is very critical, the designer's job responsibilities are increased.
d)       Systems analysts and programmers: They design and implement the application programs. They design and create the data entry screens, reports, and procedures through which end users can access and manipulate the data.
e)       End users: They are the people who use the application programs to run the organization's daily operations. For example, sales-clerks, supervisors, managers are classified as end users.  

4.       Procedures: Procedures are the instructions and rules that supervise the design and use of the data­base system. Procedures are a critical component of the system. Procedures play an important role in a company because they enforce the standards by which business is conducted in an organization

5.       Data: Data refers the collection of facts stored in the database. Because data are the raw material from which information is generated, no database can exist without database.
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